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Summa Sacramentorum Ecclesiae ex doctrina F. Francisci a Victoria, ord. Praed. apud Salmanticam primarij Cathedratici Congesta per F. Thomam de Chaues illius discipulum (Barcelona: Claudio Bornat, 1565);

Summa Sacramentorum Ecclesiae ex doctrina Fratis
Francisci à Victoria, ordinis Praedicatorum apud Salmanticam olim Primarij Cathedratici Congesta per F. Thomam de Chaues illius discipulum (Salamanca: Andrés de Portonariis, 1565) .

Francisco de Vitoria (1483-1546) entered the Dominican Order at the convent of St. Paul in Burgos. He was sent by his superiors to Paris, where he studied and taught for 18 years while living at the convent of St.-Jacques. In 1526 he became the First Chair of Theology at Salamanca. De Vitoria is the founder of the great school of sixteenth century Spanish Dominican theologians; among his many students were Melchior Cano (catalogue n° 53) and Domingo and Pedro de Soto (catalogue n° 50, n° 52, n° 54, and n° 70).

At Salamanca he replaced the Sentences of Peter Lombard with the Summa theologiae of Thomas Aquinas as the textbook for studying theology; this practice was followed by other universities in the sixteenth century. Most of de Vitoria's published works are based on lectures and orations he gave at the University, which were recorded in manuscripts by secretaries and students. He lectured on the first two books of the Summa theologiae (1, 1-2, 2-2) in 1531-1537. His published Relecciones, which comprise 12 treatises on theological, moral and legal topics, were originally orations for the beginning of the academic year delivered in the years 1527-1540. His prologue to the moral Summa aurea by Antoninus of Florence, O.P. (catalogue n° 7, n° 27, and n° 43) was first published in Paris in 1521.

The Summa sacramentorum is a compilation from de Vitoria's lectures on the fourth book of the Sentences (1529-1531). The compilation was made by his student, Tomás Chavez, O.P. (†1565). The Summa is divided into ten parts, treating the sacraments in general, each of the seven sacraments in particular, the power of the keys, and excommunication. Each part is further divided into questions, which are numbered consecutively in the first eight parts and separately in the last two parts.

The first edition of the work was printed in 1560 at Valladolid; there were 80 more editions between 1560 and 1629. The printer of the 1565 Barcelona edition was Claudio Bornat (active 1548-1581); the printer of the Salamanca edition in the same year was Andrés de Portonariis (active 1549-1568), a relative of the Portonari family from Trino in Italy whose members established publishing and printing businesses in Piemonte, Venice and Lyon. The title page of Bornat's edition displays one of his usual printer's marks; the title page de Portonariis' edition bears an engraving of St. Dominic holding lilies with a dog at his feet, which may be specific to this work.

Although the two editions were published in the same year, their texts are different. Bornat's edition, printed early in the year (14 Kalends March, i.e., 16 February), reprints the first; the title page of de Portonariis' edition states that it presents Chavez's second edition, to which he added many questions with new illustrative materials from decretals and the holy Councils, especially the Council of Trent. This edition adds three questions concerning the sacraments in general, one concerning baptism, six concerning the Eucharist, seven concerning confession, four concerning the sacrament of orders, two concerning marriage and four concerning excommunication. It adds materials to the original questions as well.

Later, after the promulgation of the teachings of the Council of Trent, de Vitoria's sacramental teaching (as represented by Chavez) was incriminated on a point concerning the sacrament of extreme unction. De Vitoria reportedly opined that consecrated oil is not necessary for the validity of the sacrament. A handwritten note on the title page of the Notre Dame copy of the Salamanca edition indicates that the book has been Expurgado. Addressing the question "an esset verum sacramentum si quis vngeret oleo non consecrato," de Vitoria remarks:

"Caietanus dubitat, an consecratio olei sit de necessitate sacramenti. Et ideo probabiliter credo, quod non est de necessitate sacramenti, licet sit de necessitate praecepti" (p. 172).

In this expurgated copy, the phrase "probabiliter credo, quod non est de necessitate sacramenti" has been crossed out.

Remarkably, handwritten notes in the Notre Dame copy of the Barcelona edition are more detailed. A note on the title page states: "Vidit et expurgauit fr. Emanuel de Grenolles ex comissione [sic] Inquisitorum iuxta expurgatorium anni 1632." A note beside the incriminating passage specifies: "sententia de oleo non benedicto damnata iam est auctoritate sedis Apostolicis vt temeraria et errori proxima" (fol. 134v). So eight parenthetical words in the classroom are censured by twice as many words of authority, jotted down by a reader who enjoyed the perspicuity rendered by "subsequent developments."

References: Getino 335-51 (editions of the Summa; engraving of St. Dominic on 336); Ramón Hernández, "Téologos dominicos españoles pretridentinos," in RHCEE 3: 225-33; Marimon 75 and fig. 6 (between 86-87); Quétif-Échard 2/1: 128b-30b, 192a; Vindel 186 n° 246 (mark of Bornat).

Catalogue No. 75
Call Number: Rare Books DURAND AGL2677      Catalog Record

Catalogue No. 76
Call Number: Rare Books DURAND AGM3347      Catalog Record

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